Monday, 30 November 2015

The Books I Read In November

'A Body in the Bath House' by Lindsey Davis
This is a book from the long-running Falco series of books, featuring the eponymous Roman detective active in the 1st century CE.  I read the first in the series 'The Silver Pigs' (1989) many years ago.  This is the 13th book of 20, published in 2001.  Davis has moved on to writing stories featuring Falco's daughter.

This novel was not at all good.  The books are written in the first person with Falco looking back on his life.  However, despite Davis's work in terms of ensuring historical accuracy, Falco's manner is far too late 20th century/early 21st century.  The complexities of Falco's family and connections are complex and add little to the story except for confusion and coincidence later in the story.

  This story mainly focuses on Falco resolving issues at the construction of the palace at Fishbourne in southern England.  Thus, Davis puts in far too many jokes about unreliable builders and uses construction jargon from modern times.  The jokes are very feeble and not humorous if you have never had an extension built.  The key problem with the book is that it progresses with minimal direction.  Various people die whether from accidents or murders but there is little sense of urgency.  Ultimately murders both in Rome and in Britain are resolved almost by accident.  Overall this book seemed to be a waste of effort.  There were interesting components but they were assembled in a way which was listless and not engaging.  I am unlikely to read any more of Davis's books.

'The Time Ships' by Stephen Baxter
Down the years friends have often recommended me to read certain books.  Typically I have loathed the recommendations and as a consequence if someone suggests I should read a book, let alone says I 'have to' read it, then I go out of my way to avoid it.  This book was lent to me by a friend and running short of science fiction or fantasy books, I turned to it.  It is billed as 'The Authorized Sequel to The Time Machine'.  It is not clear who authorised it, but I imagine it was the estate of H.G. Wells.  As we know from the difficulties that 'The League of Extraordinary Gentlemen' (2003) movie faced in trying to feature the lead character of 'The Invisible Man' (1897), the estate guards these things very assiduously.  'The Time Machine' (1895) is a novella and at over 600 pages, I feel Baxter has lost some of the essence of the original.  The tone is pretty well replicated of a Victorian character written in the first person.  However, Baxter does tend to betray his own era especially in portraying the superstructures created by the advanced Morlocks and then the Universal Constructors that seem to be physical manifestations of the internet.  Baxter's problem is that he simply has too many ideas that he feels compelled to jam into the book.  This is in contrast to Wells who maintained a tighter focus, exploring a concept per book.

Wells's book first appeared as a magazine serial and it is ironic that because of the multiplicity of ideas that Baxter feels compelled to include his book ends up being very episodic.  Any block could have been a book in itself.  There is travel to the advanced Morlock society in which a vast sphere has been built around the Sun.  There is a brief episode in which the time traveller meets his younger self.  There is an alternate 1938 and 1944 caused by time travel and involving an enduring First World War.  This seems to have been caused by the Kaiserschlacht of March 1918 succeeding and an assassination of a leading Allied general in Paris, I assume Marshal Foch.  There is a return to the Paleocene era; a journey to an Earth wrecked by a perpetual ice age brought on by climate change from pollution and a return to the original future of Morlocks and Eloi envisaged in the original novel.  Any one of these would have been sufficient for Baxter to explore his ideas of parallel realities allowing time travel and changes to history shifting the traveller into an alternate rather than actually changing that line of history; plus the sense that humans are almost doomed to becoming Morlocks or Eloi in one way or another.  I am never happy with beneficent super-powerful creatures with vast constructs and Baxter manages to get two of these in.  The visits to the alternate mid-20th century and the prehistoric period are much more tolerable.

I enjoyed this book more than I anticipated.  However, I feel it is too long.  I feel that it should not be perceived as a sequel to 'The Time Machine' but something simply using the tone of that book.  It might appeal more to readers who are fans of 'hard' science fiction.  Steampunk fans may enjoy the middle element of the book.  However, this is clearly a segmented novel and ultimately it is less overall than the sum of its parts.  I have been ambivalent about Baxter's work and this hardly encourages me to seek out any more.  However, in contrast to other book recommendations I have received, I am not angry with my friend for proposing this book.

'The Daydreamer' by Ian McEwan
My book choices recently have proven to be so poor that I almost feel I should start up a separate blog entitled 'Books Not to Read'.  Given how harsh and dismissive a large portion of online reviews are, I feel at least I am fair in my portrayal of the books.  I do wonder, sometimes, how these people managed to get their books published.  As someone once said to me, it is clear that it is not the book which gets it published, it is the person.  This is one reason why established authors, let alone celebrities, get poor quality books out there and why sales of Robert Galbraith's book, 'The Cuckoo's Calling (2013) rose by 156,866% when it was revealed that they were written by J.K. Rowling.

As you can imagine from this lead-in, I was not pleased with 'The Daydreamer' (1995).  I bought it about the time I read 'The Innocent' (1990).  That was a gritty thriller set in 1950s Berlin; was well researched and engaging.  I was irritated with reviews of the 1993 movie of the novel, as there was criticism that Isabella Rossellini was told old to play Maria in the movie.  She was 40 years old at the time and the character is 36 in the book.  Critics made the lazy assumption that innocent had to be the female character rather than Leonard played by Campbell Scott.

That aside, 'The Daydreamer' comes nowhere close to the earlier book by McEwan.  It is a conceit.  It is supposed to be a book written for children that adults can enjoy.  It features a number of episodes from the life of Peter Fortune between the ages of 10-12.  He daydreams himself into a number of scenarios, quite a fair portion of which envisage him swapping bodies in order to learn a lesson.  Yes, it is written in language which could be comprehensible by children of that age and could be seen as a collection of modern fables.  However, even if you accept these aspects, it is highly flawed.

It appears to be as nastily autobiographical as Martin Amis's work and, as regular readers know, I think Amis is highly over-rated.  It is set in a world that only exists in the mind of Michael Bond.  Aside from the occasional references to computer games, it could be inhabiting that stylised third quarter of the 20th century; it barely scrapes into the fourth quarter.  It is as if white middle class southern urban England has been distilled to its fullest.  This is the kind of context that the grandchildren of Enid Blyton's characters would have ended up living in.  As such, this is more unrealistic than the fantasies Peter ends up in.  It would have been more refreshing set on a fantasy island.  I have no idea why McEwan wrote this book, it seems to have been an utter waste of his time.  I have been reminded of the lesson of not to fall into the trap of assuming that if an author can write one good or even decent book, that others they produce will come anywhere close.

I have another of McEwan's slim volumes on my pile which I will read, but then it might be time to give up on him entirely.

Friday, 20 November 2015

'What If?'s I Have Written About

Now that I have been publishing 'what if?' analysis books and collections of short stories for three years, I thought it might be useful to identify the topics I have explored and in which book. I intend to update this as I publish more, so it is a snapshot of what is currently available. My 'what if?' books divide into two categories, those which had chapters of analysis and those with fictional stories set in the alternative context.

Collections of 'What If?' Fiction
'Another World’s War: What If? Stories of the Second World War’
'From Another Infamy: What If? Stories of the Second World War'
‘Detour: What If? Stories of Americans’
‘Déviation: What If? Stories of the French’
‘Diversion: What If? Stories of the British’
‘Route Diverted: What If? Stories of the British’
‘Umleitung: What If? Stories of Germany’

Books of Alternate History Analysis
‘Other Roads: Alternate Outcomes of the Second World War’
‘Other Roads II: Further Alternate Outcomes of the Second World War’
‘Other Roads III: Additional Alternate Outcomes of the Second World War’
‘In Other Trenches: Alternate Outcomes of the First World War’
‘In Other Trenches II: Further Alternate Outcomes of the First World War’
'Other Lives: Alternate Outcomes for Famous People in History'

‘In Another America: Views and Reviews of Alternate Histories for the USA in the 17th-20th Centuries’
‘Down Other Tracks: Alternate Outcomes of the 19th Century’
'Other Exits: Alternate Outcomes for Tudor and Stuart Monarchs’
'On Other Fields: Alternate Outcomes of the Middle Ages'
‘Other Earths: Alternate Outcomes of Geological Developments and Prehistoric Times’

In the following list, the date is the date of the divergence from our history. Some chapters reflect on a number of different divergences so you will see some repeated next to different dates.

An 'A' indicates that the chapter is analysis and 'S' that it is a story. Very often I have produced a story to match a piece of analysis. The date in brackets after the 'S' shows when the story is set. Some stories are set years or even centuries after the divergence in order to show how the world would have developed differently from that time.

The titles of the different books featuring a specific chapter should be obvious. The number after 'Ch.' is the chapter in the book which has that analysis or story.

Summary of Counterfactuals

4.54 Billion Years Ago: Earth's Axis at 0° to the Sun's Axis
– A: ‘Other Earths’ Ch. 01

4.54 Billion Years Ago: Earth's Axis at 90° to the Sun's Axis
– A: ‘Other Earths’ Ch. 01

4.54 Billion Years Ago: No Metal on Earth
– A: ‘Other Earths’ Ch. 02

3.6 Billion Years Ago: Inverted Earth – land as seas; sea as land
– A; ‘Other Earths’ Ch. 04

200 Million Years Ago: Pangea Did Not Break Up
– A: ‘Other Earths’ Ch. 03

100 Million Years Ago: Inland Sea in Australia
– A: ‘Other Earths’ Ch. 07

55 Million Years Ago: Greenland Farther South
– A ‘Other Earths’ Ch. 06

55 Million Years Ago: Horses did not Evolve
– A: ‘Other Earths’ Ch. 10

35 Million Years Ago: Antarctica Farther North
– A: ‘Other Earths’ Ch. 05

200,000 Years Ago: Women are as Strong as Men
– A: ‘Other Earths’ Ch. 11

30,000 Years Ago: Dover Isthmus Continued
– A: ‘Other Earths’ Ch. 09 

5600 BCE: Crimea Became an Island
– A: ‘Other Earths’ Ch. 08

4000 BCE: Sahara Desert Remained Green
– A ‘Other Earths’ Ch. 12

323 BCE: Alexander the Great Lived Longer
– A: ‘Other Lives’ Ch. 01

52 BCE Julius Caesar Defeated & Killed in Gaul
- S (52 BCE): ‘Déviation’ Ch. 16

44 BCE: Julius Caesar not Assassinated
– A: ‘Other Lives’ Ch. 02 

9: German Tribes Defeated in Teutoberg Forest
- S (21): ‘Umleitung’ Ch. 03

62: Romans Expelled from Britain
- S (62): ‘Route Diverted’ Ch. 03

337: Paganism Persisted
– A: ‘On Other Fields’ Ch. 01

520: Romano-British Rule Persisted in Britain
- S (801): ‘Diversion’ Ch. 03

732: Umayyad Forces Won at Poitiers
– A: ‘On Other Fields’ Ch. 02
- S (1732): ‘Déviation’ Ch. 03

878: Alfred the Great Defeated
– A: ‘On Other Fields’ Ch. 03
- S (879): ‘Route Diverted’ Ch. 13

1002: Burgundy Persisted
– A: ‘On Other Fields’ Ch. 04

1035: William the Bastard did not Become Duke of Normandy
– A: ‘Other Lives’ Ch. 03
- S (1041): ‘Déviation’ Ch. 13

1066: King Harold II Defeated at Stamford Bridge
– A: ‘On Other Fields’ Ch. 05

           King Harold II Victorious at Battle of Hastings
- A: ‘On Other Fields’ Ch. 06
- S (1088): ‘Diversion’ Ch. 14

1071: The Byzantines Won the Battle of Manzikert
– A: ‘On Other Fields’ Ch.17

1098: The 1st Crusade Failed to Capture Antioch
- S (1098): ‘Déviation’ Ch. 04

1099: The 1st Crusade Failed to Capture Jerusalem
– A: ‘On Other Fields’ Ch. 07

1135-47: A Different Anarchy
– A: ‘On Other Fields’ Ch. 08

1181: Abu Ya'qub Yusuf I Lived Longer
– A: ‘On Other Fields’ Ch. 19

1190: Friedrich Barbarossa Survived; 3rd Crusade Very Successful
- S (1193): ‘Umleitung’ Ch. 14 

1203: Duchy of Brittany Remained Independent
– A: ‘On Other Fields’ Ch. 13
- S (2011): ‘Déviation’ Ch. 02

1204: The 4th Crusade Did not Damage the Byzantine Empire
– A: ‘On Other Fields’ Ch. 17

1217: Prince Louis of France Became King of England
– A: ‘On Other Fields’ Ch. 09
- S (1686): ‘Diversion’ Ch. 05

1241: The Mongols Did not Turn Back from Europe
– A: ‘On Other Fields’ Ch. 12
- S (1272): ‘Déviation’ Ch. 06

1268: The Crusader States Persisted
- A: ‘On Other Fields’ Ch. 11

1270: The Chinese Discovered the Americas
– A: ‘On Other Fields’ Ch. 10 

1328: The English Won the Battle of Bannockburn
- S (1346): ‘Route Diverted’ Ch. 17

1346: No Black Death
– A: ‘On Other Fields’ Ch. 14
          Black Death Killed a Majority of Europeans
– A: ‘On Other Fields’ Ch. 15
          The French Won the Battle of Crécy
- S (1346): ‘Route Diverted’ Ch. 17

1376: The Black Prince Lived Longer
– A: ‘On Other Fields’ Ch. 16 

1415: English Lost the Battle of Agincourt
- S (1415): ‘Diversion’ Ch. 10

1422: England Won the Hundred Years’ War
– A: ‘On Other Fields’ Ch. 16
- S (1432): ‘Déviation’ Ch. 11
- S (1649): ‘Déviation’ Ch. 20

1453: The Byzantine Empire Persisted
– A: ‘On Other Fields’ Ch. 17

1475: German Explorer Discovered America
- S (1475): ‘Umleitung’ Ch. 06

1481: Sultan Mehmed II Lived Longer
– A: ‘On Other Fields’ Ch. 18

1485: King Richard III Won at Bosworth Field
– A: ‘Other Exits’ Ch. 01
- S (1783): ‘Diversion’ Ch. 13

1492: A Moorish State Remained in Iberia
- A: ‘On Other Fields’ Ch. 19 

1502: Prince Arthur Came to the English Throne
– A: ‘Other Exits’ Ch. 02

1511: Catherine of Aragon Had a Surviving Son
– A: ‘Other Exits’ Ch. 04
- S (1534): ‘Route Diverted’ Ch. 10

1517: Martin Luther Died Younger
- S (1517): ‘Umleitung’ Ch. 08

1536: King Henry VIII Died in a Jousting Accident
– A: ‘Other Exits’ Ch. 05
- S (1536): ‘Diversion’ Ch. 06
          Anne Boleyn Did not Miscarry
– A: ‘Other Exits’ Ch. 05

1537: Jane Seymour Did not Die in Childbirth
– A: ‘Other Exits’ Ch. 06

1538: King Henry VIII Married Marie of Guise
– A: ‘Other Exits’ Ch. 07

1540: King Henry VIII Found Anne of Cleves Attractive
– A: ‘Other Exits’ Ch. 08

1553: King Edward VI Lived Longer
– A: ‘Other Exits’ Ch. 09

1554: Queen Elizabeth I Brought to the Throne Earlier
– A: ‘Other Exits’ Ch. 10

1558: Calais Remained English
- S (1790): ‘Diversion’ Ch. 02
          Princess Elizabeth Did not Become Queen
– A: ‘Other Exits’ Ch. 11

1564: Queen Elizabeth I Married and Had Children
– A: ‘Other Exits’ Ch. 12

1571; 1578; 1583; 1586: Queen Elizabeth I Assassinated
– A: ‘Other Exits’ Ch. 13
- S (1573): ‘Diversion’ Ch. 16

1588: The Spanish Armada was Victorious
– A: ‘Other Exits’ Ch. 14 

1605: The Gunpowder Plot was Successful
– A: ‘Other Exits’ Ch. 15

1632: King Gustavus Adolphus Lived and Won 30 Years’ War
- S (1635): ‘Umleitung’ Ch. 17

1643: Oliver Cromwell Killed in Battle
– A: ‘Other Lives’ Ch. 04
          King Charles I Won the Civil War
– A: ‘Other Exits’ Ch. 16
- S (1654): ‘Diversion’ Ch. 17

1650: A Constitution Introduced to Britain
– A: ‘Other Exits’ Ch. 17
- S (1717): ‘Route Diverted’ Ch. 08

1664: Nieuw Nederland Persisted
– A: ‘In Another America’ Ch. 01
- S (1986): ‘Detour’ Ch. 05

1685: The Duke of Monmouth Victorious
– A: ‘Other Exits’ Ch. 18
- S (1687): ‘Diversion’ Ch. 11

1688: King James II Remained on the Throne
– A: ‘Other Exits’ Ch. 19 

1745: The Jacobite Rebellion Succeeded
- S (1749): ‘Route Diverted’ Ch. 02

1750s: No Industrial Revolution
– A: ‘Down Other Tracks’ Ch. 01

1759: North America became Largely French
– A: ‘In Another America’ Ch. 02
- S (1763): ‘Déviation’ Ch. 19
- S (1768): ‘Detour’ Ch. 13

1760: Prussia Destroyed
– A: ‘Down Other Tracks’ Ch. 02
- S (1760): ‘Umleitung’ Ch. 01

1770s: Steam Car Racing Became A Sport
- S (1785): ‘Déviation’ Ch. 10

1777: George Washington Died at Valley Forge
– A: ‘Other Lives’ Ch. 05
- S (1778): ‘Detour’ Ch. 09

1778: The British Won the American War of Independence
– A: ‘In Another America’ Ch. 03

1787: Federal Convention Led to Independent States
– A: ‘In Another America’ Ch. 04
- S (1976): ‘Detour’ Ch. 16

1790: French Revolution Defeated
- S (1890): ‘Déviation’ Ch. 09

1792: Japan Opened Up to the World Earlier
– A: ‘Down Other Tracks’ Ch. 10

1794: Napoleon’s Career Less Successful
– A: ‘Down Other Tracks’ Ch. 03
- S (1794): ‘Déviation’ Ch. 07

1799: Napoleon Made no Impact on French Politics
– A: ‘Down Other Tracks’ Ch. 05
          Napoleon Did not Abolish Balloon Troops
- S (1810): ‘Déviation’ Ch. 15 

1803: Duke of Wellington Killed in India
– A: ‘Other Lives’ Ch. 06
- S (1811): ‘Route Diverted’ Ch. 06
          Louisiana not Sold to the USA
- S (1992): ‘Detour’ Ch. 10

1805: France Conquered Britain
- S (1809): ‘Diversion’ Ch. 07

1812: Napoleon More Successful
– A: ‘Down Other Tracks’ Ch. 04
- S (2000): ‘Déviation’ Ch. 12
          USA More Successful in War of 1812
– A: ‘In Another America’ Ch. 05
          USA Less Successful in War of 1812
– A: ‘In Another America’ Ch. 05
- S (1814): ‘Detour’ Ch. 17

1813: Saxony Rather than Prussia Joined 6th Coalition
- S (1815): ‘Umleitung’ Ch. 13

1848: Hungary Broke Entirely from Austria
– A: ‘Down Other Tracks’ Ch. 13

1830s: Colonialism Had not Caught On
– A: ‘Down Other Tracks’ Ch. 17
            Otto von Bismarck Remained a Lawyer
- S (1872): ‘Umleitung’ Ch. 09

1839: Belgium not Created
– A: ‘Down Other Tracks’ Ch. 06

1840: Napoleon III Executed
– A: ‘Down Other Tracks’ Ch. 07
          Queen Victoria Assassinated
– A: ‘Down Other Tracks’ Ch. 08
- S (1840): ‘Diversion’ Ch. 04

1842: Britain Held Afghanistan
– A: ‘Down Other Tracks’ Ch. 09
- S (1963): ‘Diversion’ Ch. 12

1844: Henry Clay Became US President
– A: ‘In Another America’ Ch. 07
          Congresswoman Elected in New Jersey
- S (1845): ‘Detour’ Ch. 12

1845: Texas Remained an Independent Republic
– A: ‘In Another America’ Ch. 06
- S (1945): ‘Detour’ Ch. 15

1848: Hungary Broke Entirely from Austria
- A: ‘Down Other Tracks’ Ch. 14
          King Friedrich III came to the Prussian Throne
– A: ‘Down Other Tracks’ Ch. 18
          Mexico Remained Larger
– A: ‘In Another America’ Ch. 08
- S (1996): ‘Detour’ Ch. 01

1852: Earlier American Civil War and Earlier Deseret
- S (1856): ‘Detour’ Ch. 06

1857: Deseret was Sustained
– A: ‘In Another America’ Ch. 09
          The Indian Mutiny Succeeded
- S (1871): ‘Route Diverted’ Ch. 04

1858: Napoleon III Assassinated
– A: ‘Down Other Tracks’ Ch. 07

1861: King Friedrich III came to the Prussian Throne
– A: ‘Down Other Tracks’ Ch. 18
          The Confederacy Won the American Civil War
– A: ‘In Another America’ Ch. 10
- S (1868): ‘Route Diverted’ Ch. 11

1862: Otto von Bismarck was Less Successful
– A: ‘Other Lives’ Ch. 08

1863: Abraham Lincoln not Assassinated
– A: ‘Other Lives’ Ch. 07
- S (1867): ‘Detour’ Ch. 03

1866: Kaiser Wilhelm I was Restrained Less
– A: ‘Down Other Tracks’ Ch. 13

1867: Hungary Broke Entirely from Austria
– A: ‘Down Other Tracks’ Ch. 14
          Russian Colonies Had Remained in North America
– A: ‘In Another America’ Ch. 11
- S (1940): ‘Detour’ Ch. 19

1870: France Won the Franco-Prussian War
– A: ‘Down Other Tracks’ Ch. 15
- S (1871): ‘Déviation’ Ch. 17

1871: The Taiping State Persisted
– A: ‘Down Other Tracks’ Ch. 11
          Italy not Unified
– A: ‘Down Other Tracks’ Ch. 12

1878: War between Britain and Russia
– A: ‘Down Other Tracks’ Ch. 16
- S (1878): ‘Route Diverted’ Ch. 14
          Kaiser Friedrich III came to the Throne
- A: ‘Down Other Tracks’ Ch. 18

1883: The Channel Tunnel was Constructed Earlier
- S (1883): ‘Route Diverted’ Ch. 19

1888: Kaiser Friedrich III Lived Longer
– A: ‘Down Other Tracks’ Ch. 18
          The Boulanger Coup D’État Succeeded
– A: ‘Down Other Tracks’ Ch. 19

1892: Winston Churchill Died Younger
– A: ‘Other Roads 1’ Ch. 02

1895: Extensive Monorail Network Built in Germany
- S (1909): ‘Umleitung’ Ch. 10

1898: France Victorious in the Fashoda Crisis
- S (1898): ‘Déviation’ Ch. 21 

1900: King Edward VII Assassinated
– A: ‘Down Other Tracks’ Ch. 20
          The Boers Won the 2nd Anglo-Boer War
- S (1902): ‘Route Diverted’ Ch. 18

1902: Japan became an Ally of Germany
– A: ‘Other Trenches 1’ Ch. 04

1907: Stalin Died before the October Revolution
– A: ‘Other Lives’ Ch. 09
          The State of Sequoyah was Formed
– A: ‘In Another America’ Ch. 12

- S (1927): ‘Detour’ Ch. 03

1910s: Oil Exploration in North Sea Began Sooner
- S (1941): ‘Diversion’ Ch. 08

1912: Theodore Roosevelt Re-Elected US President
– A: ‘In Another America’ Ch. 13
- S (1915): ‘Detour’ Ch. 07

          Irish Free States Covered All of Ireland
- S (1913): ‘Route Diverted’ Ch. 15 

          Mussolini Remained a Left-Wing Journalist
– A: ‘Other Lives’ Ch. 11
          The First World War Never Occurred
– A: ‘Other Trenches 1’ Ch. 01
          Third Balkans War
– A: ‘Other Trenches 2’ Ch. 01
          Industrial Action Halted First World War –
 A: ‘Other Trenches 2’ Ch. 02
          Britain Did not Enter the First World War
– A: ‘Other Trenches 1’ Ch. 02
- S (1914): ‘Route Diverted’ Ch. 01
          Germany Invaded the Netherlands
– A: ‘Other Trenches 1’ Ch. 03
          The German Plans Succeeded
– A: ‘Other Trenches 2’ Ch. 03
          Italy Fought as Part of the Triple Alliance
– A: ‘Other Trenches 2’ Ch. 04
          The Ottoman Empire Remained Neutral
– A: ‘Other Trenches 2’ Ch. 05
          Germany Conquered Britain
- S (1941): ‘Diversion’ Ch. 15

          Germany Ran Out of Raw Materials
– A: ‘Other Trenches 1’ Ch. 05
          Unrestricted Submarine Warfare Introduced Sooner
– A: ‘Other Trenches 2’ Ch. 06
          The Gallipoli Offensive Succeeded
– A: ‘Other Trenches 1’ Ch. 06
          Austria-Hungary Defeated by Russia
– A: ‘Other Trenches 2’ Ch. 07

          Russia Collapsed Earlier
– A: ‘Other Trenches 1’ Ch. 07
          Sustained US-Mexican War
– A: ‘Other Trenches 1’ Ch. 08
          Full Scale British-German Naval Battle
– A: ‘Other Trenches 2’ Ch. 13
          Germans Developed Effective Tanks
– A: ‘Other Trenches 1’ Ch. 13
- S (1918): ‘Umleitung’ Ch. 12
          Germans Captured Verdun Fortresses
– A: ‘Other Trenches 2’ Ch. 08
- S (1916): ‘Déviation’ Ch. 18
          Charles E. Hughes Won the US Presidential Election
– A: ‘In Another America’ Ch. 14
          British Developed an Airship Force
- S (1916): ‘Umleitung’ Ch. 02

          Negotiated Peace
– A: ‘Other Trenches 1’ Ch. 09
          Austria-Hungary Defeated by Russia
– A: ‘Other Trenches 2’ Ch. 07
          USA Did not Enter the First World War
– A: ‘Other Trenches 2’ Ch. 09
          French Army Mutinies More Extensive
– A: ‘Other Trenches 1’ Ch. 10
          British Army Mutinied Extensively
- S (1919): ‘Diversion’ Ch. 19
          The Bolshevik Revolution Failed
– A: ‘Other Trenches 2’ Ch. 10
          Treaty of Brest-Litovsk Less Extreme
– A: ‘Other Trenches 1’ Ch. 11

          Kaiserschlacht Sustained
– A: ‘Other Trenches 1’ Ch. 12
          French Developed Stormtroopers
– A: ‘Other Trenches 2’ Ch. 12
          Britain Did not Impose Conscription on Ireland
– A: ‘Other Trenches 2’ Ch. 11 

1919: The First World War Continued
– A: ‘Other Trenches 2’ Ch. 14

1920: Treaty of Sèvres Enforced
– A: ‘Other Trenches 1’ Ch. 14
          Prohibition not Introduced
– A: ‘In Another America’ Ch. 15

1924: Lenin Lived 10 Years Longer
– A: ‘Other Lives’ Ch. 10
         Hitler Deported from Germany
- A: ‘Other Roads 3’ Ch. 01
- S (1925): ‘Umleitung’ Ch. 16

1929: Gustav Stresemann Lived Longer
– A: ‘Other Lives’ Ch. 13
- S (1936): ‘Umleitung’ Ch. 07

1931: Winston Churchill Died Younger
– A: ‘Other Roads 1’ Ch. 02
          Stronger Chinese Resistance to Japanese Invasion
– A: ‘Other Roads 1’ Ch. 03
- S (1931): ‘From Another Infamy’ Ch. 05

1932: Hitler not Granted German Citizenship
- A: ‘Other Roads 3’ Ch. 02

1933: Germany-Poland War
- A: ‘Other Roads 3’ Ch. 02
- S (1933): ‘Umleitung’ Ch. 04

1934: Franklin Roosevelt Overthrown by a Coup D’État
– A: ‘Other Lives’ Ch. 12
- S (1944): ‘Detour’ Ch. 11
          Mao Zedong was Killed
– A: ‘Other Lives’ Ch. 17
          Coup D’État in France
– A: ‘Other Roads 1’ Ch. 04
- S (1939): ‘Déviation’ Ch. 14
          Nazi Coup D’État in Austria Successful
– A: ‘Other Roads 2’ Ch. 01
- S (1934): ‘Another World’s War’ Ch. 10
           King Alexander of Yugoslavia not Assassinated
- S (1943): ‘Another World’s War’ Ch. 15

1935: Mussolini Overthrown
- A: ‘Other Roads 3’ Ch. 11

1936: Edward VIII Remained King of the United Kingdom
– A: ‘Other Lives’ Ch. 14
- S (1955): ‘Route Diverted’ Ch. 07
          The Maginot Line was Built Along the Belgian Border
– A: ‘Other Roads 1’ Ch. 06
          Italy and Germany Did not Become Allies
– A: ‘Other Roads 2’ Ch. 02
- S (1941): ‘Another World’s War’ Ch. 07
          Remilitarisation of the Rhineland Resisted
- A: ‘Other Roads 3’ Ch. 03

1937: The Republicans Won the Spanish Civil War
- A: ‘Other Roads 3’ Ch. 04
          The USA Joined Second World War from the Start
- A: ‘Other Roads 3’ Ch. 06
- S (1938): ‘From Another Infamy’ Ch. 12

1938: Appeasement Succeeded in Avoiding War
– A: ‘Other Roads 1’ Ch. 05
- S (1940): ‘From Another Infamy’ Ch. 07
- S (1948): ‘Another World’s War’ Ch. 14
          Neville Chamberlain was a German Collaborator
– S (1938): ‘Other Roads 2’ Ch. 03
          Germany-Czechoslovakia War of 1938
– A: ‘Other Roads 1’ Ch. 07
- S (1938): ‘Another World’s War’ Ch. 04
          Hitler Assassinated
- A: ‘Other Roads 2’ Ch. 18
          Mussolini Assassinated
- A: ‘Other Roads 3’ Ch. 11
          Stalin Debilitated by a Stroke
- S (1938): ‘From Another Infamy’ Ch. 19

         Allies Unable to Break the Enigma Cipher
- A: ‘Other Roads 1’ Ch. 14
France Invaded Germany to Support Poland
 - S (1939): ‘From Another Infamy’ Ch. 16

Jewish Refuge Established in Alaska
– A: ‘In Another America’ Ch. 17
          Britain Invaded Norway
- S (1940): ‘Another World’s War’ Ch. 05
          German Invasion of Norway Defeated
– A: ‘Other Roads 1’ Ch. 08
          USSR Invaded Norway
- A: ‘Other Roads 3’ Ch. 07
- S (1940): ‘From Another Infamy’ Ch. 13
          Japan Invaded the USSR
- A: ‘Other Roads 3’ Ch. 08
- S (1942): ‘From Another Infamy’ Ch. 09
          Lord Halifax Became British Prime Minister
– S (1940): ‘Other Roads 3’ Ch. 05
          German Invasion of Belgium Halted
- A: ‘Other Roads 2’ Ch. 04
          German Invasion of France Defeated
- A: ‘Other Roads 3’ Ch. 09
- S (1940): ‘Another World’s War’ Ch. 01
          Anglo-French Union Formed
- A: ‘Other Roads 2’ Ch. 05
- S (1965): ‘Diversion’ Ch. 18
          The BEF was Eliminated at Dunkirk
– A: ‘Other Roads 1’ Ch. 10
          Italy Did not Enter the Second World War
– A: ‘Other Roads 1’ Ch. 09
          French Government Went to Brittany Redoubt
- S (1940): ‘Another World’s War’ Ch. 13
          The French Government Relocated to Algeria
– A: ‘Other Roads 1’ Ch. 11
- S (1941): ‘Déviation’ Ch. 01
- S (1942): ‘From Another Infamy’ Ch. 06
          Germany Invaded Switzerland
– A: ‘Other Roads 1’ Ch. 12
- S (1940): ‘From Another Infamy’ Ch. 10
          Germany Invaded Spain and Portugal
– A: ‘Other Roads 1’ Ch. 15
          Spain and Portugal Fought Actively for the Axis
- A: ‘Other Roads 2’ Ch. 09
- S (1940): ‘Another World’s War’ Ch. 16
          German Invasion of Britain Failed
- A: ‘Other Roads 2’ Ch. 06
- S (1940): ‘Another World’s War’ Ch. 11
- S (1941): ‘Diversion’ Ch. 01
          German Invasion of Ireland
- A: ‘Other Roads 3’ Ch. 13
          Germany Invaded Iceland
- A: ‘Other Roads 2’ Ch. 10
          Italy Victorious in Greece
- A: ‘Other Roads 2’ Ch. 07
- S (1940): ‘From Another Infamy’ Ch. 04
          Italy Invaded Palestine
- S (1940): ‘Another World’s War’ Ch. 03
          Mussolini Dismissed
- A: ‘Other Roads 3’ Ch. 11
          Poison Gas Weapons Used -
- A: ‘Other Roads 2’ Ch. 17

         Franklin Roosevelt Only Allowed to Serve 2 Terms
– A: ‘In Another America’ Ch. 16
- S (1951): ‘Detour’ Ch. 02
         Yugoslavia Remained Independent
- S (1943): ‘Another World’s War’ Ch. 15
         The British Held Crete
- A: ‘Other Roads 3’ Ch. 14
- S (1966): ‘From Another Infamy’ Ch. 20
          Germany Invaded Cyprus
– A: ‘Other Roads 1’ Ch. 16
          Germany Invaded Bulgaria
- A: ‘Other Roads 2’ Ch. 11
          Soviet Response More Effective to German Invasion
- A: ‘Other Roads 2’ Ch. 08
- S (1941): ‘From Another Infamy’ Ch. 19
          Latvia Became an Ally of Germany
- S (1943): ‘Another World’s War’ Ch. 12
          Vichy France Fought Actively for the Axis
- A: ‘Other Roads 3’ Ch. 12
          USA Concentrated on Fighting in the Pacific
- S (1944): ‘Another World’s War’ Ch. 09

Germans Won the Second World War
– A: ‘Other Roads 1’ Ch. 01
 - S (1968): ‘Another World’s War’ Ch. 20
          Japan Won the Pacific War
- A: ‘Other Roads 2’ Ch. 18
          Singapore was Better Defended
- S (1942): ‘From Another Infamy’ Ch. 17
          Japan Invaded Ceylon
– A: ‘Other Roads 1’ Ch. 13
- S (1942): ‘From Another Infamy’ Ch. 02
          Allies Invaded Norway
- A: ‘Other Roads 2’ Ch.12
          German Forces Reached Palestine and Iraq
- A: ‘Other Roads 2’ Ch. 13
- S (1942): ‘From Another Infamy’ Ch. 03
          Germans Victorious at Leningrad and Stalingrad
- A: ‘Other Roads 3’ Ch. 16
- S (1942): ‘Another World’s War’ Ch. 18
          German Forces Captured Grozny
- S (1942): ‘Another World’s War’ Ch. 06

Japan Invaded India
– A: ‘Other Roads 1’ Ch. 13
          Allies Lost Battle of the Atlantic
- A: ‘Other Roads 3’ Ch. 15
- S (1943): ‘Route Diverted’ Ch. 09
          Allies Invaded Brittany
– A: ‘Other Roads 1’ Ch. 17
- S (1943): ‘Another World’s War’ Ch. 19
          Allies Tried to Liberate the Channel Islands
- A: ‘Other Roads 3’ Ch. 17
          Operation Mincemeat Failed
– A: ‘Other Roads 1’ Ch. 18
          Allies Invaded Greece Rather than Italy
- S (1943): ‘From Another Infamy’ Ch. 15
          Italian Armistice Handled Better
- A: ‘Other Roads 2’ Ch. 14
          A Civil War in Hungary
- S (1943): ‘From Another Infamy’ Ch. 14

         Germany Developed an Atomic Bomb
– A: ‘Other Roads 1’ Ch. 19
- S (1944): ‘Another World’s War’ Ch. 17
          Soviets Developed an Atomic Bomb First
- A: ‘Other Roads 2’ Ch. 20
          D-Day Landings in Pas-de-Calais
- A: ‘Other Roads 2’ Ch. 16
          France Became a Communist Country
- S (1945): ‘From Another Infamy’ Ch. 11
- S (1974): ‘Déviation’ Ch. 08
          Hitler Assassinated
- A: ‘Other Roads 2’ Ch. 19
- S (1944): ‘Another World’s War’ Ch. 02
          Germans Used Numerous Jet Bombers
- A: ‘Other Roads 3’ Ch. 19
- S (1956): ‘From Another Infamy’ Ch. 18
          Bridge at Arnhem Held by Allies
- A: ‘Other Roads 3’ Ch. 18
- S (1944): ‘From Another Infamy’ Ch. 08
          Communists Won Greek Civil War
- A: ‘Other Roads 3’ Ch. 20
          The Soviets Aided the Warsaw Uprising
- S (1957): ‘Another World’s War’ Ch. 08
          No US Atomic Bomb Built & Invasion of Japan
- S (1946): ‘From Another Infamy’ Ch. 01

         Morgenthau Plan Implemented
– A: ‘Other Roads 1’ Ch. 20
         Bakker-Schut Plan Implemented
- S (1956): ‘Umleitung’ Ch. 11

1946: Joseph McCarthy not Elected a Senator
– A: ‘In Another America’ Ch. 18

1948: More Alert US Foreign Policy
– A: ‘In Another America’ Ch. 19
          Britain Became Part of the USA
- S (1952): ‘Route Diverted’ Ch. 16

1952: Robert Taft Elected US President; Nixon, Vice-President
- S (1963): ‘Detour’ Ch. 08

1956: British Victorious in Suez Crisis; Invaded Libya
- S (1956): ‘Route Diverted’ Ch. 12

1960: Richard Nixon Won the 1960 US Presidential Election
– A: ‘Other Lives’ Ch. 15

1961: Charles De Gaulle Assassinated
– A: ‘Other Lives’ Ch. 16
- S (1961): ‘Déviation’ Ch. 05
          The Beatles were Convicted
- S (1961): ‘Umleitung’ Ch. 05

1962: USA Invaded Cuba
– A: ‘In Another America’ Ch. 20
          Tactical Atomic Weapons Used by Cuba
- S (2003): ‘Detour’ Ch. 18

1963: John F. Kennedy not Assassinated
– A: ‘In Another America’ Ch. 21
          East Germany Invaded West Berlin
- S (1963): ‘Umleitung’ Ch. 18

1966: Mao Zedong was Ousted from Power
– A: ‘Other Lives’ Ch. 17

1968: Robert Kennedy not Assassinated
– A: ‘In Another America’ Ch. 23

1969: USSR-China Third World War
– A: ‘In Another America’ Ch. 22

1974: Lord Mountbatten Became Head of a British Junta
– A: ‘Other Lives’ Ch. 19
- S (1975): ‘Route Diverted’ Ch. 05
          Richard Nixon Remained in Office
– A: ‘In Another America’ Ch. 24

1977: Hans Schleyer’s Kidnappers Found
- S (1978): ‘Umleitung’ Ch. 15

1981: Ronald Reagan Assassinated
– A: ‘Other Lives’ Ch. 20
- S (1987): ‘Detour’ Ch. 14

1984: Indira Gandhi was not Assassinated
– A: ‘Other Lives’ Ch. 18
         Margaret Thatcher Assassinated
– A: ‘Other Lives’ Ch. 21
- S (1984): ‘Diversion’ Ch. 09